Procedure
Part A - Scientific Observations Using Human Senses

• Use your senses to observe the citrus fruit in front of you.
• Make notes on everything you observe in the Lab Report (Part A #1a & 1b).
• Include description of size, color, shape, etc...
• As you make observations use anatomical terms discussed in the Lab Manual and be specific.
• Quantify wherever possible.

Part B - Observations Using Laboratory Tools
The Hand Lens

• The hand lens allows you to see more details.
• It magnifies the object 10x.
• Use the hand lens to re-examine the fruit in front of you and record your observations in the Lab Report.
• As you make observations use anatomical terms discussed in the Lab Manual and be specific.
• Make sure you have observations for BOTH interior and exterior anatomy and that you observe something you could not see with your naked eye.

The Dissecting Microscope

• The Dissecting microscope allows you to see even more details.
• It magnifies the object 8x to 32x its normal size.
• Use the Dissecting Microscope to re-examine the fruit in front of you. Record in your Lab Report (Part B #4a, 4b & 5)
• As you make observations use anatomical terms discussed in the Lab Manual and be specific.
• Make sure you have observations for BOTH interior and exterior anatomy and that you observe something you could not see with your naked eye or the hand lens..

Part C - Deductions from Observations

• Observe the other citrus fruits in the lab, answer questions and complete Table 1.1 in the Lab Report.
• Using your common knowledge of an apple, and the image of an apple below, answer questions in Part C of the Lab Report.

Figure 5 shows red apples whole and with slices. The slice of the apple shows a thin external covering filled with a solid white inside that is not broken into segments.

Part D - Designing an Experiment

• We will design an experiment to determine where the mass of a new plant comes from.
• Can you come up with a hypothesis? Where do you think the mass of a plant comes from? This is not something to look up. Where do you think the mass of a plant comes from? As long as it is a testable explanation, it is a good hypothesis!

• You will be provided with the following materials for your experiment.
- Styrofoam cups.                            
- Soil                                            
- Balance
- Bean seeds
- Water                                              
- Pencil
• Have your instructor approve your experimental design before beginning your experiment.
• Answer the remaining questions in the Lab Report.

Click here to Watch Video on where others think the mass of a plant comes from

Before you leave
- Clean-up and neaten your laboratory space.
- Wipe the laboratory table with disinfecting wipes.
- Using dampened lens paper, wipe the lenses of the microscope to remove any residual juice from the citrus fruits that may be on the microscope stage.
- Return all scopes, balances, lens, etc... to their proper location.

Non-majors College Biology Lab Manual © 2021 by Marie McGovern Ph.D. is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0